Common frame of reference defined by a specialized organization, promoting the interoperability of resources. In terms of nomenclature and controlled vocabulary, the TEI consortium and the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) fulfill this function. In terms of metadata to document digital linguistic resources, the European CLARIN consortium is working to define a more flexible modular standard that better meets the specific needs of the field. conventions (transcription or annotation) do not have the official status of standards, but can impose themselves in a more or less wide sphere and partially fulfill this role.